Sunday, January 12, 2020

Product Life Cycle Concept Essay

Michael Porter’s framework of competitive analysis is applicable to our business organization known as D.T.DOBIE TANZANIA LTD which falls under the automobile industry in Tanzania and worldwide in the following ways: A.Barriers to entry/threat of new entrants. It’s true that the average person can’t come along and start selling brand new cars. The emergence of foreign competitors with the capital, required technologies and management skills began to undermine the market share of brand new car sellers. The following factors are barriers to automobile seller’s new entrants: * Knowledge and Technology Ideas and knowledge of servicing its supplied products is the one that provides competitive advantage to D.T Dobie over others. D.T Dobie uses machines of highest technology on checking and servicing its cars in which, gives them power to provide guarantee of up to one year service to its product since they are assured of what they are doing. The machines used by the skilled labor of D.T Dobie to service and check the product are of high quality and they are very expensive in such a way that for new entrants firm in that business its an ownership barrier. * Access to distribution The demand for brand new cars in Tanzania is very low since they are sold at price that individual can’t afford. D.T Dobie is a greater supplier of brand new cars to Tanzania government institution, most United Nations (UN) organizations such as UNICEF, ILO, UNESCO, representative’s offices in Tanzania and embassies offices. Since these agencies are the most buyers of brand new cars, it has made D.T Dobie to have almost the access to distribution channel of selling brand new cars in which this act as barrier to new entrants since the buyers are few. * Cost of entry Initial capital required to set up a new firm is very high, it makes the chances of new entrants to be very less. * Product differentiation and cost advantage The product has to be different and attractive to be accepted by the customers. D.T Dobie is the greater seller of brand new NISSAN, MITSUBISHI, MERCEDES BENZ, HONDA and HYUNDAI in which made them different from its competitor since it sells many brands than others. By being supplier of government cars has made them to be exempted when importing cars for government institution uses. B. Bargaining power of suppliers: The bargaining power of suppliers is also described as the market of inputs. Suppliers of raw materials, components, labor, and services (such as expertise) to the firm can be a source of power over the firm, when there are few substitutes. Suppliers may refuse to work with the firm and also may charge excessively high prices for unique resources. For organization of our choice i.e. D.T Dobie its suppliers for motor vehicles are TOYOTA, NISSAN, MITSUBISHI and MERCEDES BENZ. D.T Dobie is the seller of brand new car in Tanzania where by its inputs i.e. imported new cars from great multinational companies are so important for its survival, this leads the suppliers having great power over D.T Dobie since it’s not manufacturer but the buyer of finished product. Increase in production cost to one of suppliers on specified product may lead to switching cost which will be relative to D.T Dobie switching cost. Degree of differentiation of inputs: D.T Dobie supplier’s supply different brands in which is difficult for them to switch from one supplier to another. For example if they are required by its customers i.e. government to supply cars that’s engine capacity is V8 that pushes them to deal with TOYOTA since other suppliers are not producing cars with that engine capacity. For parts suppliers, the life span of an automobile is very important. The longer a car stays operational, the greater the need for replacement parts. On the other hand, new parts are lasting longer, which is great for consumers, but is not such good news for parts makers. C. Bargaining power of customers: Buyers refer to the customers who finally consume the product or the firms who distribute the industry’s product to the final consumers. Bargaining power of buyers refer to the potential of buyers to bargain down the prices charged by the firms in the industry or to increase the firms cost in the industry by demanding better quality and service of product. Since our organization of our choice D.T Dobie supplies and sell brand new cars in Tanzania, its customers are few since who can afford to buy brand new cars are government institution, most united nations (UN) organizations such as UNICEF, ILO, UNESCO, representatives offices in Tanzania, embassies offices and individuals who can afford to do so. Since its customers only want quality and guaranteed products this act as driving force to D.T Dobie to supply not only quality products but also quality parts and servicing those cars for the whole year as guarantee after being sold out. Since D.T Dobie is greater supplier of brand new NISSAN, MITSUBISHI, MERCEDES BENZ etc. cars in Tanzania availability of substitute products such as FORD, RANGE ROVER, LAND ROVER which are supplied by its competitors like CMC motors and sold at same or at lower price than D.T Dobie’s have made some of its customers to shift to those brands as it’s known customers are very sensitive to price. Most of those mentioned above customers purchase in large quantities. They have full information about the product and the market. They emphasize upon quality products. They pose credible threat of backward integration. In this way, they are regarded as a threat. D. Threat of Substitute Products: Substitute products are goods or services from outside a given industry that perform similar or the same functions as a product that the industry produces. Rather than looking at the threat of someone buying a different car, there is also a need to also look at the likelihood of people taking the bus, train or airplane to their destination. When determining the availability of substitute’s time, money invested, personal preferences and convenience in the auto travel industry should be considered. D.T.Dobie should consider the following factors when analyzing this force: * Price Band The threat that consumer will switch to a substitute product if there has been an increase in price of the product or there has been a decrease in price of the substitute product. If the price of the cars sold by D.T.Dobie will increase the main expected customers i.e. the one switching from bike to car will not move to car and will remain in the bike only. Thus the price is kept checked in this manner. * Substitutes performance The performance of the substitute sector also plays an important role in the success of the business. If the price of other dealers such as Africariers increases or the price band of the small segment falls, it will have effect on the quantity required in the market. It’s just on the price but also the features and the other services associated or it may be the status symbol story. * Buyers willingness Products with improving price/performance tradeoffs relative to present industry products. It will determine the willingness of the buyer to buy from D.T.Dobie.The willingness of the customers to go forward to try the new product in the market such as Mercedes Benz reduces the threat from substitute products. E. Competitive Rivalry: This force analyses the level of competition between existing players in the industry. Because an industry’s firms are mutually dependent, actions taken by one company usually invite competitive responses. Thus in many industries firms actively compete against one another. Highly Competitive industries generally earn low returns because the cost of competition is high. The auto industry is considered to be an oligopoly (a market condition in which sellers are so few that actions of any one of them will materially affect price) which helps to minimize the price-based competition. Below are factors which are seen in this force: * Price Competition Advertising battles may increase total industry demand, but may be costly to smaller competitors. Products with similar function limit the prices firms can charge. Price competition often leaves the entire industry worse off.. * Product Quality Increasing consumer warranties or service is very common these days. To maintain low cost, companies consistently has to make manufacturing improvements to keep the business competitive. This requires additional capital expenditure which tends to eat up company’s earning. On the other hand if no one else can provide products/ services the way you do you have a monopoly. D.T.Dobie enjoys the monopoly of selling new cars are there are no competitors in this segment. * Unique Selling Point Also D.T. Dobie has advantage over its rivals because it represents a premium brand which is recognized over the world, they found a niche in the market where have a leading brand like Mercedes-Benzes a and a brand which people aspire to own .Also they are lucky to have Nissan one of the most renowned Japanese brands which is an equal pillar of their business. * Expansion DT Dobie is looking to grow and move forward, both in its native Tanzania and in surroundings regions. By building strong relationships and working closely with strategic partners, DT Dobie’s footprint keeps on growing. Also they are expanding by appointing more dealers around the country. * Investment In terms of investing in our own equipment, this takes priority; they put all eyes on technology so they are not behind the rest of the world. Even if the latest technical advancement s are available to the company, DT Dobie makes sure any investment is benefiting to the organization as a whole .Every five years D.T. Dobie has an equipment review which makes sure the company is on right track, ensures investments have been successful and assesses whether upgrades need to be made in order to reach the next level, they are absolutely up to date. Also ensures that its vehicle testing equipment has modern standards which outnumber it from its rivals. CONCLUSION: In general, any CEO or a strategic business manager is trying to steer his or her business in a direction where the business will develop an edge over rival firms. Michael Porter’s model of Five Forces can be used to better understand the industry context in which the firm operates. Porter’s Five Forces model is a strategy tool that is used to analyze attractiveness of an industry structure. Porter’s Five Forces model views the business from inside and outside. It focuses on assessing competitive position within the industry.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

TBS 920 International Business Strategy Nokia India...

Prepared by: Manoj Gulati - 4130157 TBS 920 – International Business Strategy 1 Curriculum and Business Profile †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ Company profile Guest country profile Economic, Cultural and Political Analysis Technological Analysis Entering and functional strategies Marketing Strategy of Nokia in India SWOT PESTEL analysis Recommendations References 2 Company profile †¢ Formed in 1865 by mining engineer Fredrik Idestam in a village named Nokia in Southwestern Finland †¢ First business was in wood pulp mill †¢ In 1920, Finnish Rubber Works was acquired by Nokia †¢ 1922, Finnish cable works merged in Nokia and Nokia was know as footwear (galoshes) and tyres, went on to manufacture rubber bands,†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬Å"India is now Nokias second-largest market, displacing the U.S. and behind only China† Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo, the president and chief executive Nokia in 1996 12 Entering and functional strategies There are various types of strategies to enter a market. †¢ Joint ventures †¢ Franchising †¢ Licensing †¢ Exporting †¢ Foreign Direct Investment †¢ Wholly owned subsidiaries †¢ Turnkey project †¢ Alliances Nokia decided to enter India as FDI and with 100% branch mode stup 13 Marketing Strategy of Nokia in India Product (customization) †¢ In 1998 for republic day , Nokia came out with patriotic Indian tunes based ring tone phones . †¢ Nokia introduced inter-changeable covers offer for 5110 model †¢ In 1999, Nokia came out with Hindi user interface in its phones hence adapting to the local language. †¢ Nokia partnership with Sony music for top 20 hit songs as ring tones. Nokia 3210, †¢ The model 3610 was launched with an enhancing Hindi text messaging facility in 2001. †¢ In 2003 when Nokia came with 1100 and 1108 specifically designed features

Friday, December 27, 2019

The Contribution to Economics of Each of the Following •...

Write an essay describing the contribution to economics of each of the following: †¢ Adam Smith †¢ Thomas Malthus †¢ David Ricardo †¢ Karl Marx †¢ Alfred Marshall †¢ John Maynard Keynes †¢ Milton Friedman â€Å"Many Economists have tried to establish why the economy performs as it does and want to have a basis for predicting how the economy will perform when circumstances change†. (Nagel, S pg 1 1999) Economists are just people after all, who have lived through different times and experiences in their lives, thus leading to different values and views. George Bernard Shaw once said that â€Å"If all economists were laid end to end they would not reach a conclusion†,(cited in Mankin, Taylor 2006) In this essay we will look at what contributions†¦show more content†¦Ricardo inspired by â€Å"Sutter’s† books developed the law of comparative advantage. This formed the basis of international trade. He believed in free international trade as it gets the maximum out of resources thus increasing income (Nagel) Karl Marx was born in Germany in 1818. He expressed his revolutionary socialist ideas in his two main publications the Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital. Marx basic economic beliefs were very alike the Classical economists, in that he supported a labour theory of value but his approach was completely different. Marx wanted things to change in such a way that would help to improve working conditions for the working classes. He did not believe in the â€Å"invisible Hand† and was more concerned with change and evolution throughout society. He believed communism would replace capitalism and that workers would have full control over all means of production leading to a more even allocation of wealth. He believed that the value of a good was the value of the amount of labour necessary to produce it. Therefore the value of goods produced by the worker was more than the wages paid to the worker, the difference being a surplus or profit to the employer. Marx argued that this was exp loitation of the workers by their capitalistic employers. Believing that the capitalists were profit hungry, Marx stated that the demand for labour would amplify which would in turn cause wages to rise. The rise in wages

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Death Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller - 1343 Words

When people think of hauntings, they think of scary ghosts or spirits; things that frighten them or cause them to stay awake at night. Although that is the most common definition for the word â€Å"haunting†, it is not what is always meant by it. A person can also be haunted by memories, things, and people from the past or present. The objective of this analysis is to explain the hauntings of characters from multiple writings, and the consequences that followed. The first character is Willy Loman, in Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller. Willy is haunted by many people from his past and present that he cannot seem to get out of his head. To begin with, Willy keeps having memories of his brother Ben trying to convince him that he should follow†¦show more content†¦He states, â€Å"Do you know? when he died—and by the way he died the death of a salesman, in his green velvet slippers in the smoker of the New York, New Haven and Hartford, going into Boston— when he died, hundreds of salesmen and buyers were at his funeral† (Miller 1091). Willy would probably not have been so obsessed with succeeding and being the man he used to be if he did not know about David Singleman. David’s story proved to Willy that there is still a chance, since someone has succeeded in what Willy wishes he could have. One of the consequences that Willy faced due to his hauntings was losing his mind. He lost his job because he was unable to focus and became useless to the company he was working for. Another consequence was Willy becoming suicidal. He attempted suicide multiple times, until he eventually succeeded. The consequences Willy faced not only effected him, but also his family. His wife Linda was constantly worried about him before his death, knowing that he was trying to kill himself. She states â€Å"The insurance inspector came. He said that they have evidence. That all these accidents in the last year—weren’t—weren ’t—accidents† (Miller 1081). She was living day by day, hoping he would change his mind about it, but nothing she could do was enough to keep Willy sane and alive. Another haunted character is the woman in The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Gilman. She is haunted by a women she believes is trapped in the wallpaper in the room sheShow MoreRelatedDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller1387 Words   |  6 PagesAmerican play-write Arthur Miller, is undoubtedly Death of a Salesman. Arthur Miller wrote Death of a Salesman in 1949 at the time when America was evolving into an economic powerhouse. Arthur Miller critiques the system of capitalism and he also tells of the reality of the American Dream. Not only does he do these things, but he brings to light the idea of the dysfunctional family. Death of a Salesman is one of America’s saddest tragedies. In Arthur Miller’s, Death of a Salesman, three major eventsRead MoreDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller888 W ords   |  4 PagesDeath of a Salesman† is a play written by Arthur Miller in the year 1949. The play revolves around a desperate salesman, Willy Loman. Loman is delusioned and most of the things he does make him to appear as a man who is living in his own world away from other people. He is disturbed by the fact that he cannot let go his former self. His wife Linda is sad and lonely; his youngest son Biff is presented as a swinger/player while his eldest son Happy appears anti-business and confused by the behaviorRead MoreDeath of Salesman by Arthur Miller972 Words   |  4 PagesIn the play Death of a Salesman by the playwright Arthur Miller, the use of names is significant to the characters themselves. Many playwrights and authors use names in their works to make a connection between the reader and the main idea of their work. Arthur Miller uses names in this play extraordinarily. Not only does Miller use the names to get readers to correlate them with the main idea of the play, but he also uses names to provide some irony to the play. Miller uses the meanings of someRead MoreDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller1573 Words   |  7 Pagesrepresents a character with a tragic flaw leading to his downfall. In addition, in traditional tragedy, the main character falls from high authority and often it is predetermined by fate, while the audience experiences catharsis (Bloom 2). Arthur Miller’s play Death of a Salesman is considered to be a tragedy because this literary work has some of the main characteristics of the tragedy genre. In this play, the main character Willy Loman possesses such traits and behaviors that lead to his downfall, and theRead MoreDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller949 Words   |  4 PagesDeath of a Salesman can be described as modern tragedy portraying the remaining days in the life of Willy Loman. This story is very complex, not only because of it’s use of past and present, but because of Willy’s lies th at have continued to spiral out of control throughout his life. Arthur Miller puts a modern twist on Aristotle’s definition of ancient Greek tragedy when Willy Loman’s life story directly identifies the fatal flaw of the â€Å"American Dream†. Willy Loman’s tragic flaw can be recappedRead MoreThe Death Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller846 Words   |  4 PagesA Dime a Dozen The Death of a Salesman is a tragedy written by playwright Arthur Miller and told in the third person limited view. The play involves four main characters, Biff, Happy, Linda, and Willy Loman, an ordinary family trying to live the American Dream. Throughout the play however, the family begins to show that through their endeavors to live the American Dream, they are only hurting their selves. The play begins by hinting at Willy’s suicidal attempts as the play begins with Linda askingRead MoreDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller Essay2538 Words   |  11 PagesSurname 1 McCain Student’s Name: Instructor’s Name: Course: Date: Death of a Salesman Death of a salesman is a literature play written by American author Arthur Miller. The play was first published in the year 1949 and premiered on Broadway in the same year. Since then, it has had several performances. It has also received a lot of accordances and won numerous awards for its literature merit including the coveted Pulitzer for drama. The play is regarded by many critics as the perfectRead MoreDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller1628 Words   |  7 PagesArthur Miller wrote the Pulitzer Prize winning play Death of a Salesman in 1949. The play inflated the myth of the American Dream of prosperity and recognition, that hard work and integrity brings, but the play compels the world to see the ugly truth that capitalism and the materialistic world distort honesty and moral ethics. The play is a guide toward contemporary themes foreseen of the twentieth century, which are veiled with greed, power, and betrayal. Miller’s influence with the play spreadRead MoreDeath Of Salesman By Arthur Miller1475 Words   |  6 Pagesto death to achieve their so- called American dream. They live alone and there is no love of parents and siblings. They may have not noticed the America dream costs them so much, which will cause a bigger regret later. In the play Death of Salesman, Arthur Miller brings a great story of a man who is at very older age and still works hard to achieve his desire, which is the American dream. Later, he notices that his youth is gone and there is less energy in his body. Willy Loman is a salesman, whoRead MoreDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller2081 Words   |  9 Pages#1 â€Å"Death of a Salesman† by Arthur Miller is a tragedy, this play has only two acts and does not include scenes in the acts. Instead of cutting from scene to scene, there is a description of how the lighting focuses on a different place or time-period, which from there, they continue on in a different setting. The play doesn’t go in chronological order. A lot of the play is present in Willy’s flashbacks or memories of events. This provides an explanation of why the characters are acting a certain

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Living together before marriage free essay sample

In my father’s house it was never discussed whether I should live with someone before marriage. We are not allowed to live with our boyfriend until after we are married. Being my own person and following my own rules, I decided to move out of my parents’ house. I decided to move into my boyfriend house. My parents hated that I was living with my boyfriend before marriage. Living together before making our vows helps us get to know each other better. I believe that couples should live together before marriage, so they can start to know each other on a closer, more personal level; moreover, they can start thinking about the compatibility of their future spouse. When me and my boyfriend moved in together we starting knowing each other on a closer, more personal level. I think living together prepares us for a married lifestyle. I’ve learned what my boyfriend likes and dislikes, although this isn’t always easy. We will write a custom essay sample on Living together before marriage or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page There is a lot to discover about and from him. For example, does he like cabbage, Disney channel, sleeping with the fan on at night? Maybe, he likes to spend the whole weekend partying with his friends at a night club! Believe it or not its little details like these that can make or break a relationship. He has learned what kind of bad habits I have and whether or not he can get rid of them. I really don’t like when my boyfriend leaves the toilet seat up, forgets to replace the empty toilet paper holder, and leaves his dirty clothes on the bathroom floor; I, on the other hand don’t like washing dishes, washing clothes, and putting up the groceries. However, I can see how much fun I have with him and realize how much I would miss out by not getting married. Sometimes our relationship gets tough and boring, so we try to keep or relationship creative and alive. I think that couples can make a wiser decision about the lifelong compatibility of their future spouse if they live together. I have learned if my boyfriend is ready for marriage by seeing his reaction to the â€Å"m† word marriage. From time to time I question myself if I would like to have kids with him, and if I’m ready to stay with him through thick and thin. I want to see if he is suited for monogamy; from his past relationships it was hard for him to stay faithful with one person. If something terrifying was to happen to me like a car accident, I would like to see how he reacts and how would he behave. Living together we don’t have the pressure of a marriage certificate hanging over our head. Living together before marriage means no messy divorce if we decided that we wanted to part, because of the living conditions. I can make a lot of decisions before I enter a marriage that is bad or my health, physically and emotionally. Being free of the pressure of marriage, I will stand a better chance of knowing my boyfriend as a real person. Living with my boyfriend before marriage isn’t a problem to me at all, but to my father it is. As my father would claim, â€Å"You’re playing wife and you’re not married†. Of course, my father lives in the old days with the old rules. I would chose shacking up before marriage any day. I want to get to know my boyfriend before I marry him and move into his house. I don’t want to marry him, move in together, get to know his living arrangements and conditions, find out we can’t live together; in addition, get a divorce. I want to get married ad stay married.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Sufi brotherhoods Essay Example

Sufi brotherhoods Essay Brief 195749: Comparison and Contrasting the Organizations and Activities of Two Modern Sufi Brotherhoods Sufism, like other mystical motions in the Abrahamic spiritual household, is an esoteric religion which varies from group to group. Furthermore, the assorted Sufi brotherhoods in being today differ greatly from each in both their reading of the Qur’an and Hadith. Like many other monotheistic mysterious traditions, Sufi motions take on the civilization of the population in which they were introduced, doing even subdivisions of the same brotherhood hard to place save for those who identify themselves as such. The Mevlevi Brotherhood, founded by the Sufi poet and religious leader Jalaluddin Rumi ( 1207-1273 ) are most normally recognized in the Western universe as â€Å"whirling dervishes, † a group of mystics who search for Allah through a series of supplication assorted with poesy, dance, and music. Other groups such as the Naqshbandi Brotherhood are esoteric but branched out from the Deobandi Movement of Sufism in South and Central Asia. Typically more political than mo st other Sufis, the Naqshbandi were linked to anti-Bolshevik runs in Afghanistan every bit good as the modern Chechen Resistance. Factors impacting the development of differences among Sufis include the countries in which they were founded and the planetary place of Islamic Caliphates at the clip of their several initiation. Where Mevlevis are mostly cloistered, unpolitical craftsmans, the Naqshbandi are more politically charged and remain devoted to strict Quranic reading. We will write a custom essay sample on Sufi brotherhoods specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Sufi brotherhoods specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Sufi brotherhoods specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Muslim mysticism and the nature of Sufism at big is hard to specify. An abstract motion in comparing to both the mainstream patterns of Sunni and Shiite Islam, the huge bulk of Sufi orders follow the instructions of a shaykh ( besides normally termed â€Å"sheikh, † â€Å"maulana, † and â€Å"mevlana† ) or respected figure believed to disciples of several brotherhoods to be morally and spiritually in melody with the instructions of Islam. The patterns of Sufi groups deviate from the spiritual rites of conventional Islam’s ablutions and traditions, giving the mystical motion a sense of reformism and reinterpretation. For this ground, Sufi groups’ esoteric patterns have long been suspected by many to be dissident and inherently un-Islamic. M.T. Stepaniants’Sufi Wisdomdescribes the world’s assorted Sufi groups as holding â€Å"exercised considerable influence on the cultural and socio-political life of Muslims, † a merchandise of à ¢â‚¬Å"elite consciousness and a popular religion† [ 1 ] . If any signifier of common organisation can be ascribed to the mysterious motion, it is an organisation that has been â€Å"a signifier of societal protest against the dominant political system every bit good as the legalized spiritual philosophy that warranted and sanctioned the system, † used to â€Å"quell, lenify, and quash societal activity† [ 2 ] . Some Sufi orders meet in order to reform and analyze Islam in new methods to redefine common readings of the Quran and the Hadith and necessitate silent attachment to the five pillars of Islam: regular supplication, the recitation of religion, charity, fasting during the holy month of Ramadan, and pilgrims journey to the holy metropolis of Mecca. Other orders find followings of all chevrons, many of whom do non profess to be Muslim and retain their individuality as non-Muslims despite following the instructions of an elevated Muslim leader. Some Sufis are cloistered abstainers that devote their lives to other-worldly chases, and others lead regular lives without abdicating worldly purposes and activities. Despite these pronounced differences, Sufism at big â€Å"counterpoised irrationalism to rational believing while it besides stood Forth as a assortment of spiritual free-thought non infrequently immediate with philosophic theorizing† ; most groups, ascetic or non, â€Å"persuade searchers of ‘the Path’ to abdicate everyday attentions and bodily appetencies, and to integrate esoteric self-discipline† [ 3 ] . Even the term â€Å"Sufism† is disputed, with some bookmans indicating to the beginnings of the rubric holding to make with the Grecian termsophos, or wisdom, and others imputing the motion to a signifier of utmost spiritual piousness represented by the woolen frock of the Islamic pilgrim, known as theâ€Å"shuf.†Stepaniants links the thoughts of Islamic mysticism and roots of several motions to everything from Islam to â€Å"Neo-Platonism, Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, and the like† [ 4 ] . The Naqshbandi One of the larger Sufi orders, or tarika ( disambiguation includes â€Å"tariqa† and â€Å"terika† ) of the Muslim religion, the Naqshbandi follow the instructions of Bahauddin Naqshband Bukari ( 1318-1389 ) . Like many other Sufi motions, the Naqshbandi originated in Central Asia. Unlike other orders, the Naqshbandi are non easy distinguishable physically or dogmatically from mainstream Sunni Muslims. As noted by Idries Shah inThe Way of the Sufi, the Naqshbandi â€Å"never publically adopted any typical frock, and because their members neer carried on attention-attracting activities, bookmans have non been able to retrace the history of the order, and it has frequently been hard to place its members† [ 5 ] . Shah continues to depict the tradition of the Naqshbandi as one to work â€Å"entirely within the societal model of the civilization in which they operate, † hence deriving the group the reputation of â€Å"being chiefly Muslim pietists† [ 6 ] . The Naqshbandi, though following the instructions of their namesake, branched off into several smaller groups, with many of their members fall ining the ranks of other Sufi groups. This mobility is extremely characteristic of Sufis, whose loose definitions and associations enable them to stay Sufis of assorted organisations every bit good as practicians of assorted Muslim subgroups. The ambiguity of the Naqshbandi pattern and instructions enabled the group to last assorted overzealous counter-movements aimed at the devastation of the Sufi universe. The comparatively progressive motion of the Naqshbandi â€Å"emphasized a shar’ist ( Shariah, or Islamic Law-based ) orthopraxy, political activism, extension of the faith, and a strong Sunni orientation [ which ] came to tag the Naqshbandi in a manner that proved unequivocal in the mystical path’s subsequent history† [ 7 ] . The group is highly rooted in the chase of worldly personal businesss within the model of the Islamic religion. This includes the kingdom of political relations, a sector in which most Sufis daring non condescend to endeavor. As antecedently mentioned, the Naqshbandi were non wholly esoteric, accommodating to the civilization in which they lived. The group emphasized both â€Å"self-cultivation and formal rite, and backdown from and engagement in society† [ 8 ] . There is doubtless a step of self-negation in such an observation, but it is predicated upon irrevocably Sufi patterns. The Naqshbandi were non self-aggrandising, though they did believe themselves to hold an almost-exclusive apprehension of the Islamicdeen, or religion. Because they endeavoured to take portion in society’s gestures, the Naqshbandi were in big portion a extension of the Islamic proselytizing tradition. Not necessitating the repudiation of secular patterns and the acceptance of the cloistered life style was a big property to the success of the brotherhood and its endurance today. Unlike their cloistered Sufi opposite numbers, leaders of the Naqshbandi order â€Å"enjoyed households and the stuff wealth accrued from the contributions of their followings, † besides going committed to political â€Å"involvement and societal alteration based on Islamic principles† most prevalently demonstrated in their anti-Russian missions in Afghanistan and Chechnya [ 9 ] . Anti-Russian ( ulterior anti-Soviet post-1917, and so once more anti-Russian post-1994 ) Naqshbandi activism in the Caucasus has spanned the last century as the mo st noteworthy characteristic of Naqshbandi international activity, who prior to the autumn of the Romanov dynasty were entrenched in the battle for independency: â€Å"The Russian businessperson and socialist revolutions of 1917 farther aggravated the place of the Sufis in the North Caucasus. The most detrimental factor was the Bolsheviks’ unbelieving war against Islam and Sufism in peculiar. Harmonizing to some beginnings most Naqshbandis who were concealing in the mountains of Dagestan and Chechnya welcomed the February businessperson revolution of 1917. They hoped that the revolution would convey about the political independency of the North Caucasus. Those Naqshbandis were active participants in the popular rebellion which resulted in the constitution of a ‘North Caucasic Emirate’† [ 10 ] . The tradition of Naqshbandi political association carried over into the first and 2nd Chechen Wars, marked by the moral force of the struggle with Moscow. At first, the Naqshbandi served the intent of fusion, pulling the Ingush, Dagestani, and Chechen peoples bound by a common religion. Their strong Sunni association besides drew support from the larger Muslim universe, with pre-1994 support coming from Iran, Saudi Arabia, and others. By the clip the Chechens had their first presidential election, nevertheless, the rise of Wahabbism in the part prompted the Naqshbandi, comparative centrists in Quranic reading, to divide off from the Chechen political mainstream. Acknowledging the danger of a extremist patriot, patently-Wahabbi authorities sponsored by General Dudayev, the â€Å"first Chechen Mufti, Muhammad Bashir, a Naqshbandi, refused to endorse Dudayev during the elections, † making a rift in Chechen society that remains today [ 11 ] . Curiously plenty, the Naqshbandi shayk hs and their adherents began as military leaders and recruiters to the opposition motion, contending a Russian presence they deemed to be imperialist. As spiritual motions opposite the Naqshbandi tradition evolved, nevertheless, so did their commitments. In order to wrest spiritual control from the turning figure of Chechen Wahabbis who opposed the assignment of Moscow-backed Ahmed Kadyrov, the Naqshbandis rallied in support of the immature leader, back uping â€Å"federal forces while the Wahabbis allied themselves with the unreconcilable Chechen extremist patriots who refused any duologue with Moscow† [ 12 ] . Spiritually, the Naqshbandi brotherhood is â€Å"characterized by its accent on a soundless ‘remembrance of God’ as opposed to the more conventional pattern of reiterating a expression aloud† [ 13 ] . In hisMystic Islam, Julian Baldick inside informations the Sufi art of repeat in the chase of God. Many Sufi groups will pattern routine recitations, normally consisting anyplace from individual words and phrases to full transitions from the Quran and prescriptions taken from the Hadith. Certain Deobandi brotherhoods will declaim names of God ( known in Urdu aszikrand in Arabic asdhikr) , reiterating discrepancies of the 99 known names of Allah ( Allah the Magnificent, Allah the Merciful, Allah the Protector, etc ) in order to comprehend the construct of the Godhead more clearly. Contrary to this pattern, the Naqshbandi are alone in the sense of quiet observation, practising a mental recitation that resembles the intonation of â€Å"Aum† in Hindu speculation. Baldick notes the comparative isolation of the Naqshbandi from other groups, reflecting on the character of separation many Muslims contend renders the Naqshbandi â€Å"as a mere spiritual association as opposed to other brotherhoods more normally referred to as ‘orders’† [ 14 ] . The Naqshbandi are in many senses Orthodox reformers within a far more structured model than most. The Mevlevis Possibly the most celebrated Sufis outside the Islamic universe, the Mevlevis, known more normally as â€Å"Whirling Dervishes† represent the more controversial of the Sufi brotherhoods. Like the Naqshbandi, the Mevlevis ( afterlife referred to as â€Å"dervishes† ) did non necessitate a cloistered life style from their followings. Many dervishes had households and occupations, attendedJuma’a( Friday flushing ) supplications at local mosques, practising their alone reading of Islam in Lodges non unlike those of Masons. The nature of Mevlevi Sufism differed greatly, based on the instructions of the celebrated poet Rumi, whose instructions in universalism and the integrity of world attracted followings including Jews, Buddhists, Hindus, Christians, and Zoroastrians. Dervishes typically follow the heralded and oft-described â€Å"greatest Sufi poet† as a â€Å"friend of God† instead than a adult male of conservative piousness in the Naqshbandi-style â €Å"remembrance of God† [ 15 ] . This lies in stark comparing to the utmost fear exhibited by most within the crease of Sunni Islam ; the near-deification of Rumi is a point of acrimonious contention at best, and at worst is an exercising of unorthodoxy. Besides contrary to Naqshbandi tradition, dervishes have a distinguishable manner of frock, made familiar in their celebrated ceremonials of dance and music. Like Rumi, the typical dervish in supplication frocks in a big xanthous chapeau typifying the mortality of adult male, and ( depending on the brotherhood ) fluxing cloaks over white dress reminiscent of the frock of a Muslim pilgrim, orhajji.Today’s dervishes, no longer organized as they were in the yearss of the Ottoman Empire now that modern Turkey has banned Sufism ( due to Naqshbandi resistance to secularisation by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk ) , do non congregate Thursday darks in the Lodges they used to busy. Today’s dervishes are mostly public presentation instrumentalists and terpsichoreans, touring the universe to play music, recite poesy, and take portion in the what is known as thesema. Harmonizing to dervish tradition, Rumi himself was â€Å"aware of the motion and sound in all of the planet† and hence instructed his followings, Muslim or non, to partake in thesema, a â€Å"whirling dance of the dervishes as an look of the cosmic joy experienced by the coincident consequence of obliteration and glorification† [ 16 ] . Due to the other-worldly traditions of the Mevlevi, most Moslems throughout history found it easy to individual them out as misbelievers with their irregular frock and pattern. Presently, there is no purely organized Mevlevi order of dervishes ; the clip of â€Å"groupsemasand communalzikrhas long since past† [ 17 ] . Their ceremonials, nevertheless, remain integral as those staying travel as performing artists. Unlike the Naqshbandi, who scorn music and vocalizing, the dervishes still appreciate music, utilizing it non unlike American Gospel vocalizing. This is strongly kindred to the art of theqawwali, or South Asiatic Sufi vocal of devotedness. Where the Naqshbandi stanchly identified with Sunni Islam, condemning the Shiites as heretic, dervishes saw no differentiation in the great Islamic split that created the two religious orders. Theological oppositions of the dervishes frequently categorized them with the Shiites, whose many traditions paralleled the Mevlevi cosmopolitan connexion with the remainder of the universe. Songs, poesy, and the publicity of art were prevailing in the Mevlevi traditions every bit good as in Shiite Islam. Like Shiites , Mevlevis still execute â€Å"the holy ablutions of the Muslim faith† before â€Å"entering the Hall of Celestial Sounds, † or dervish â€Å"lodges† [ 18 ] . The dervishes pushed the bounds and stenosiss of Sunni Islam in about every regard in the worship of Allah ; Baldick states â€Å"that there was plentifulness of institutionalised mystical libertinism† every bit early as the 16th century every bit good as â€Å"documentary grounds of the playing of out musical instruments by dervishes, and besides grounds of widespread ingestion of vino and drugs by dervishes† [ 19 ] . Though non alone to Sufi orders, the ingestion of vino and drugs was purely forbidden in both mainstream Shi’a and Sunni Islam. Where the Naqshbandi held purely to dietary limitations prescribed in the Quran, Hadith, and Shariah Law, the dervishes found comparative freedom and yet faced small reverberation on history of their supposed moral aberrance. Unlike the Naqshban di who sought chiefly to change over people to their Islam, the dervishes under Rumi prayed in integrity with everyone and everything in the universe. Throughout history, the Whirling Dervishes â€Å"continued to retain the particular fondness of the powerful, † appealing to their sense of self-aggrandisement through dervish supplications â€Å"not merely for the opinion dynasty but for the expansive vizier, the military and civil decision makers, and the scholar-jursits† [ 20 ] . The Naqshbandi, on the other manus, when in dissension with a governing dynasty in respects to political relations or spiritualty, frequently found themselves exiled. Unfortunately for the dervishes, nevertheless, gaining the fondnesss of the powerful did non pardon them from unfavorable judgment whether in the kingdom of dietetic carelessness or sexual aberrance. Rumi himself was rumoured to hold kept a male lover throughout his life. Harmonizing to most Muslims, â€Å"many dervishes are th oroughly immoral and habitually intoxicated ; † decried by many in the Naqshbandi brotherhood as misbelievers but besides vehemently defended by others [ 21 ] . Rumi’s histories of â€Å"gazing at beardless boys† led to anti-Sufi cabal accusal of the Mevlevis’ â€Å"sexual misconduct and licentious behaviour† [ 22 ] . The fear of human existences is the most evident between Shiites and the Mevlevi ; the two revere their leaders as idols of virtuousness and religious piousness. The Naqshbandi, though in fear of theirshaykhs, follow their leaders as religious instructors more kindred to the Sunni Muslim construct of the typical Mullah, or prayer leader. Clergy in Sunni Islam, after all, requires minimum instruction as the age ofijtihad, or Islamic Jurisprudence, has long since ended. The Mevlevi, though technically a Sunni group, mirror the Shiites in their reinterpretation of the Quran and the comparative lax attack to Hadith and certain Shariah Torahs. Where the Naqshbandi and the Mevlevi spiritually overlap, nevertheless, is the order of prioritizing of spiritual traditions. Using the illustration of the gap of Chechen duologue with Moscow to fiddle the extremist patriots and Wahabbis, it becomes apparent that while strict in some respects, the Naqshbandi mediate their ardor for faith with the wo rld of secular political relations and the value of human life. The Chechen patriots and Wahabbis would contend to see an independent Islamic Chechnya governed by Shariah jurisprudence, cognizing such an enterprise would be the lives of infinite 1000s. The Chechen Naqshbandi, nevertheless, were willing to extenuate the being of an Islamic Caliphate out of their people’s best involvements. As schools of esoteric Muslims, Sufi orders are comprised followings who profess to reform Islam, pattern a â€Å"true† Islam, and besides about contradict the definitions of what it is to be a Muslim. Like any other international faith, Islam finds alteration in every portion of the universe it is practiced. Where Sufis differ, nevertheless, is their reading that spans every state where Islam finds following. From the Naqshbandi return to â€Å"true Islam† to the Mevlevi cosmic, cosmopolitan attack to God, mystical Islam proves to be as varied and the traditional entry before Allah. Whether perceived as groups of work forces fighting to better understand the nature of religion and the Godhead or a school of idea rectifying the aberrance of the yesteryear, Sufi orders such as the Mevlevi and Naqshbandi both strive to convey adult male closer to his Creator. Bibliography Allievi, Stefano and Jorgen S. Nielsen. ( 2003 )Muslim Networks and TransnationalCommunities in and Across Europe. Atabaki, Touraj and Sanjyot Mehendale. ( 2004 )Cardinal Asia and the Caucasus:Transnationalism and Diaspora. New York: Taylor A ; Francis Routledge. Baldick, Julian. ( 2000 )Mystic Islam: An Introduction to Sufism. New York: New YorkU P. Ernst, Carl W. and Annemarie Schimmel. ( 1992 )Ageless Garden: Mysticism, History,and Politicss at a South Asiatic Sufi Center. Capital of new york: State U of New York P. Esposito, John L. ( 1998 )Islam and Politicss. Syracuse: Syracuse U P. Friedlander, Shems, and Nezih Uzel. ( 1992 )The Whirling Dervishs: Bing an Historyof the Sufi Order Known As the Mevlevis and Its Founder the Poet and MysticMevlana Jalalu’ddin Rumi. Capital of new york: State U of New York P. Shah, Idries. ( 1977 )The Way of the Sufi. London: Penguin Books. Stepaniants, M. T. ( 1994 )Sufi Wisdom. Capital of new york: State U of New York P.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Holocausts Projection

Holocaust is one historic incident of brutalism in the history that was taken place right after the II world war. As a matter of fact, a great deal of literature has been published by different historians in order to demonstrate holocaust.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on How Holocaust Has Been Projected by the Different Historians Over the Years? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Several historians claimed that it was unfair as it was an act of barbarism and it promoted wicked behavior with the innocent people of Jewish community while on the other hand, it was said that the holocaust was a good source of the extermination of Jews for the sack of race and nationalism. It can be said that holocaust has rather been challenged by scholars. In this paper we shall discuss that how holocaust has been projected by the different historians over the years. Moreover, we shall discuss its modern elaboration as well. In order to identify the various interpretations about the subject we shall first discuss what is a holocaust exactly? Holocaust is considered as the ultimate extermination or systematic killing of a racial or cultural group. In history we have studied that after the World War II extermination of European Jews happened by the Nazi Germany to demolish and abolish the community to an extent. History says that six million Jews were slaughtered and one-third of the nine million Jews in Europe were subjected to the slings and arrows of misfortune. Before the World War II various actions and legislations were made to remove the Jews from the civil society in the Nazi Germany like the most common Nuremberg Law. The Jews were being opposed by every possible opponent. Like the Third Reich which was a Nazi Dictatorship under Hitler (1933-1945) became fanatic and acted in accordance with their beloved Fuhrer’s agenda of murder and destruction. They conquered the Eastern Europe territory and the specialized units which were called as Einsatzgruppen killed Jews mercilessly. After the war numerous Jews were killed on the name of religion and nationalism. Different historians have different approaches regarding this which we are going to discuss (Rose 2008). As in the beginning we have mentioned that some historians have appreciated the holocaust and they have clarified it by their different statements on the issue that the holocaust appears to be fair as they presented the thought of Nazi Germany that Germans are superior to Jews racially and Jews are unworthy of living and should be given capital punishment. Basically they were unable to accept any other nation at their place and they only wanted to spread their generation, their race and their creed. Also they did this for the purpose of revenge as many of the Russian Christians in the USSR also got killed by the Jews. So, under this thought the Jews were supposed to be killed and expelled from the German society (Engel 20 09).Advertising Looking for essay on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the same manner, some said that the holocaust was unfair by raising the question that why the extermination was done so brutally No community is supposed to impose its rules and its regulations over the other community and do any act of brutalism and barbarism for the sake of its motives. This thought is presented by the Jews of course but most of the neural classes also reject the idea of holocaust for the sake of humanity that brutal slaughter of six million Jews is too much for revenge (Bankier and Mikhman 2008). Another thought, which seems to be quiet weird and controversial as well is that some people deny the reality of holocaust that nothing happened like the holocaust. They are actually called as the deniers of holocaust or revisionists. Denial in the holocaust arises by the rightwing extremism which basically supports the amalgamation of states and people to promote unity. The reasons behind the denial proposed by the revisionists are various. Firstly they say that there is an exaggeration that six million Jews were killed during the holocaust. Most of them were killed during the World War II. Secondly, the stories like they were killed in the gas chambers is totally devoid of any sensible thought as it is experimentally proven that gas cannot be used for killing but for disinfection. Third is that Hitler’s had got no intentions of killing the Jews and the Jews only have to be deported to the east not to be killed (Taylor 2008). So, these were the various interpretations made by different historians about the holocaust. Still it cannot be concluded that who is right as everyone has given their opinions about the issue in accordance with their perspectives. But it is not the ending. The Jews as well as the Germans both survived the difficulties awfully. The Jews continued their struggle. They were wandering a t every nook and corner for shelter. The quantity of the survivors of holocaust was about 1,200,000 including the non-Jews. So, their resettlement was not that easy. When International Refugee Organization (IRO) took over in 1947 many Jews and non-Jews were homeless. They were resettled after a long period of four years. Many of the Jews were killed when they tried to return Poland which made others afraid of getting back. So, the Jews created a big problem for the IRO. It was difficult because many of the states refused the Jews to enter their territories. So, Jews at a large quantity wanted to go Palestine at that time; the British were of the view that they cannot allow such immigration and allowed fewer than 100,000 Jews to enter before the establishment of Israel in 1948 (Dinnerstein 1982). Other issue which increased the problems for the remaining Jew community was the United States also presented the refusal to not allow the refugees to enter in the country despite of the per mission policy of the government to allow them finding homes in United States. Earl G. Harrison was appointed by President Truman for reporting the need and desires of refugees giving priority to Jews which resulted in the reorganization of United Nation Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) and in the establishment of IRO.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on How Holocaust Has Been Projected by the Different Historians Over the Years? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Truman proposed the idea that the United States should allow the refugee immigrants to enter in the state as they deserve to have their shelter. As a result of this the United States granted the permission to the refugees that they can live in their country and they can practice freely their lives too (Dinnerstein 1982). Approximately, 137,000 Jews entered the United States among 400,000 refugees. Other countries where the Jews went were Cana da, France, Great Britain and Israel. But Unites States and Israel were the two of them which had got the high population of Jews (Dinnerstein 1982). On the other hand, as a reactionary action the Germans also subjected to the miseries after the holocaust. The Nazi were called for trial at the courts. Many, who were responsible and who served as active participant in the holocaust sentenced to capital punishment. Most of the higher authorities like the government officials, business men who used forced labor etc were treated leniently. Germans who started the industrialization got so many restrictions. They were opposed strictly for the brutal crime. Trade embargo and many other restrictions on Jews were made (Cesarani 2004). Jewish community has suffered a lot of anger after the holocaust. They feel pity for their people who survived after the holocaust or who experienced the holocaust. The historians have changed their views over time. Most of the Jew historians say that the prese nt generation should not further study the matters related to holocaust as they portray the tragic endings of Jewish history and devaluation of the historic tale (Bankier and Mikhman 2008). Most of the scholars, who supported the idea of holocaust, have also changed their views with time. They now consider it as a shameful act by the Nazi Germany. They are of the view that it was free barbarism and brutality. They should not have done that as it is something which is beyond the ethics. Germans ruined a nation for their personal motives. They were the supporters of wrong thoughts and approaches (Taylor 2008). But on the other hand, many events related to this organized butchery are still going on in different parts of the world. For instance, the most prominent example of holocaust in the present world is the Palestinian and Israeli holocaust. On daily basis the Palestinians are subjected to many miseries and power enforcement by the Israelis.Advertising Looking for essay on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Their homes are bulldozed, their agricultural fields are being destroyed, the poor families are thrown on streets by the police forces and like this hundreds of women and children are being killed (Shah 2009). Another example related to the holocaust is the Nigerian armed forces acts of holocaust on Niger Delta. They are involved in the holocaust activities ruining the people and property of the Niger Delta dwellers just because of the oil running beneath their feet. The Nigerian government is continuously trying to take actions against attacks and oil theft (Nossiter 2010). Like this, various acts of barbarism and extermination is going on in different parts of our world. Some are doing this for the sack of religion, some for their personal motives and some are doing so that they will have a dominant position. Various historians have interpreted the holocaust in different manners and have tried to draw a conclusion by their views. Most of them have also changed the views with the p assage of time. The ideas and perceptions which were immensely supported got distorted. They finally realized that killing people ruthlessly is not the only solution. By the present situation of the world, we can observe the miseries and humiliation faced by different innocent people. Similarly, the post war holocaust after the year of 1945 was no doubt considered as a tragic story of the Jewish history and German brutality and it has left an ever lasting impression on the minds of people. References Bankier, D., Mikhman, D. (2008). Holocaust historiography in context: emergence, challenges, polemics and achievements. New York, London: Berghahn Books. Cesarani, D. (2004). Holocaust: The end of the final solution and its aftermaths. New York: Routledge. Dinnerstein, L. (1982). America and the Survivals of the Holocaust. New York: Colombia University Press. Engel, D. (2009). Historians of the Jews and the Holocaust. Chicago: Stanford University Press. Nossiter, A. (2010, June 16). Fa r From Gulf, a Spill Scourge 5 Decades Old. Retrieved from Rose, J. (2008). The Holocaust and the Book: Destruction and Preservation. Massachusetts: Univ of Massachusetts Press. Shah, A. (2009, February 1). Palestine and Israel. Retrieved from Taylor, T. (2008). Denial: history betrayed. Melbourne: Melbourne Univ. Publishing. This essay on How Holocaust Has Been Projected by the Different Historians Over the Years? was written and submitted by user Jamal Shepherd to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.